bitwise operations with filter and fold

Pangram in D
module pangram;

import std.algorithm : filter;
import std.algorithm.iteration : fold;
import std.ascii : isAlpha;
import std.uni : toLower;

@safe pure bool isPangram(string text)
    uint letters = 0;
    return text.toLower
        .fold!((a, b) => a | (1 << (b - 'a')))(letters) == 0b00000011_1111_1111_1111_1111_1111_1111;

This approach starts by importing from libraries for what is needed.

The isPangram function is marked @safe to ensure the compiler disallows certain unsafe practices in the function implementation. It is also marked as pure to ensure it does not modify any state external to itself.

An unsigned integer (uint) binding is defined to hold the bits representing the lowercase letters of the English alphabet.

Uniform Function Call Syntax is used to call a chain of functions, starting with the toLower function called on the text input.

The lowercased characters are passed into the filter function, which uses the isAlpha function to filter in only characters that are ASCII alphabetic.

The surviving letters are passed into the fold function which is seeded with the unsigned integer. The lambda takes each letter and subtracts it by a. This results in subtracting the ASCII value of the lowercase letter by the ASCII value of a. If the lowercase letter is a, then a minus a will result in 0. If the lowercase letter is z, then z minus a will result in 25.

The value of 1 is shifted left (<<) for the number of positions as the letter minus a. So a would have 1 shifted left 0 places (so not shifted at all) and z would have 1 shifted left 25 places. The bitwise OR operator (|) is used to set the bit to 1 at that position in the uint. So, in the uint, with the values for a and z both set, the bits would look like


When the fold is done, it returns the value of the unsigned integer as modified by the bits that were set. If the bits for all of the English letters are set, then the result will equal the binary literal which has its rightmost 26 bits set.

Finally, isPangram returns the result of comparing the bits set from the input text with all bits being set.

For further ways of handling bitwise operations, check the std.bitmanip library.

22nd May 2024 · Found it useful?