filter and sort with uniq and count

Pangram in D
module pangram;

import std.algorithm : filter, map, sort;
import std.algorithm.iteration : uniq;
import std.algorithm.searching : count;
import std.array : array;
import std.ascii : isAlpha, toLower;

private immutable abc = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz";

pure bool isPangram(string text)
    return text.filter!isAlpha
        .count == 26;

This approach starts by importing from libraries for what is needed.

An immutable binding to a string of all the English lowercase letters is defined. Although a string type is immutable, meaning it can't be modified in place, the immutable binding ensures that the abc binding can't be assigned to another string.

import std;
void main()
    auto ab = "ab";
    // ab[0] = "b"; // compile error: cannot modify `immutable` expression `ab[0]`
    ab = "cd"; // okay to set a mutable binding to another value
    immutable cd = ab; // okay to set an immutable binding to the value of a mutable binding
    // cd = "ef"; //compile error: cannot modify `immutable` expression `cd`
    ab = "gh"; // still okay to set a mutable binding to another value

// prints gh
// prints cd

In the above code example, we see that, although the ab binding is not immutable, we still can't change it in place, as all strings are immutable. We can, however, change the ab binding to another value.

We can set the immutable binding of cd to the current value of the mutable ab binding. Once the immutable cd binding is set, we cannot set it to another value.

Although the immutable cd binding was set to the value of ab, ab can still be changed to another value independent of the cd binding. The abbinding is changed to the "gh" value, and the cd binding still has its "cd" value.

The isPangram function is marked @safe to ensure the compiler disallows certain unsafe practices in the function implementation. It is also marked as pure to ensure it does not modify any state external to itself.

Uniform Function Call Syntax is used to call a chain of functions, starting with the toLower function called on the text input.

The lowercased letters are passed to the filter function. It uses the isAlpha function to filter in only characters that are ASCII alphabetic. The surviving letters are passed into the array function so they can be sorted.

The sort function sorts the lowercase letters and passes them into the uniq function, which requires a sorted array to work properly. uniq deduplicates the letters so that only one of each character remains.

If all of the English letters are in the input text, then the number of letter elements resulting from uniq will be 26.

To count the letters, they are passed in to the count function. When count is done, it returns the number of elements resulting from uniq. If all of the English letters are in the text input, then the result will equal 26.

Finally, isPangram returns the result of comparing the count of uniq letters with 26.

22nd May 2024 · Found it useful?