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A rational number is defined as the quotient of two integers `a`

and `b`

, called the numerator and denominator, respectively, where `b != 0`

.

Note

Note that mathematically, the denominator can't be zero. However in many implementations of rational numbers, you will find that the denominator is allowed to be zero with behaviour similar to positive or negative infinity in floating point numbers. In those cases, the denominator and numerator generally still can't both be zero at once.

The absolute value `|r|`

of the rational number `r = a/b`

is equal to `|a|/|b|`

.

The sum of two rational numbers `r₁ = a₁/b₁`

and `r₂ = a₂/b₂`

is `r₁ + r₂ = a₁/b₁ + a₂/b₂ = (a₁ * b₂ + a₂ * b₁) / (b₁ * b₂)`

.

The difference of two rational numbers `r₁ = a₁/b₁`

and `r₂ = a₂/b₂`

is `r₁ - r₂ = a₁/b₁ - a₂/b₂ = (a₁ * b₂ - a₂ * b₁) / (b₁ * b₂)`

.

The product (multiplication) of two rational numbers `r₁ = a₁/b₁`

and `r₂ = a₂/b₂`

is `r₁ * r₂ = (a₁ * a₂) / (b₁ * b₂)`

.

Dividing a rational number `r₁ = a₁/b₁`

by another `r₂ = a₂/b₂`

is `r₁ / r₂ = (a₁ * b₂) / (a₂ * b₁)`

if `a₂`

is not zero.

Exponentiation of a rational number `r = a/b`

to a non-negative integer power `n`

is `r^n = (a^n)/(b^n)`

.

Exponentiation of a rational number `r = a/b`

to a negative integer power `n`

is `r^n = (b^m)/(a^m)`

, where `m = |n|`

.

Exponentiation of a rational number `r = a/b`

to a real (floating-point) number `x`

is the quotient `(a^x)/(b^x)`

, which is a real number.

Exponentiation of a real number `x`

to a rational number `r = a/b`

is `x^(a/b) = root(x^a, b)`

, where `root(p, q)`

is the `q`

th root of `p`

.

Implement the following operations:

- addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of two rational numbers,
- absolute value, exponentiation of a given rational number to an integer power, exponentiation of a given rational number to a real (floating-point) power, exponentiation of a real number to a rational number.

Your implementation of rational numbers should always be reduced to lowest terms. For example, `4/4`

should reduce to `1/1`

, `30/60`

should reduce to `1/2`

, `12/8`

should reduce to `3/2`

, etc. To reduce a rational number `r = a/b`

, divide `a`

and `b`

by the greatest common divisor (gcd) of `a`

and `b`

. So, for example, `gcd(12, 8) = 4`

, so `r = 12/8`

can be reduced to `(12/4)/(8/4) = 3/2`

.
The reduced form of a rational number should be in "standard form" (the denominator should always be a positive integer). If a denominator with a negative integer is present, multiply both numerator and denominator by `-1`

to ensure standard form is reached. For example, `3/-4`

should be reduced to `-3/4`

Assume that the programming language you are using does not have an implementation of rational numbers.

Last updated 22 March 2023

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