Create Vec on new

Allergies
Allergies in Rust
pub struct Allergies {
    allergens: Vec<Allergen>,
}

#[derive(Clone, Copy, Debug, PartialEq)]
pub enum Allergen {
    Eggs = 1,
    Peanuts = 2,
    Shellfish = 4,
    Strawberries = 8,
    Tomatoes = 16,
    Chocolate = 32,
    Pollen = 64,
    Cats = 128,
}

use self::Allergen::*;
const ALLERGENS: [Allergen; 8] = [
    Eggs,
    Peanuts,
    Shellfish,
    Strawberries,
    Tomatoes,
    Chocolate,
    Pollen,
    Cats,
];

impl Allergies {
    pub fn new(score: u32) -> Self {
        Self {
            allergens: Self::calculate_allergens(score),
        }
    }

    pub fn is_allergic_to(&self, allergen: &Allergen) -> bool {
        self.allergens.iter().any(|allergy| allergy == allergen)
    }

    pub fn allergies(&self) -> Vec<Allergen> {
        self.allergens.clone()
    }

    fn calculate_allergens(score: u32) -> Vec<Allergen> {
        let mut allergens = Vec::<Allergen>::new();

        for flag in 0..=7 {
            if score & 1 << flag != 0 {
                allergens.push(ALLERGENS[flag as usize]);
            }
        }
        allergens
    }
}

This approach starts by defining the Allergies struct with an allergens field of Vec<Allergens> type.

Since the values of the Allergen enum are primitive numeric types, the Copy trait is derived when defining the enum. Clone is a supertrait of Copy, so everything which is Copy must also implement Clone, so Clone is derived as well.

The use self::Allergen::*; line is so that the Allergen values can be referred to directly in the file, instead of needing to prefix every value with Allergen, e.g. 'Allergen::Eggs`.

A fixed-size array is defined to hold the Allergen values in order, as enum values are not ordered to be acccessible by index.

The [Allergen; 8] is used to give the type and length of the array. To be a const, the size of the array must be known at compile time, so setting the type and length must be done explicitly, so the size in bytes of the fixed array can be deduced by the compiler from that and not by inspecting the element types and counting the elements itself.

Next, the methods for the Allergies struct are implemented.

The new() method uses the calculate_allergens() method to set the allergens field for a new Allergies struct.

The is_allergic_to() method uses the any() method to see if the passed-in Allergen is contained in the allergens field, which is a Vec of Allergen values.

The allergies() method uses the clone() method to return a copy of the allergens Vec. Since the Allergen values derive from Copy, they are inexpensively copied.

The calculate_allergens() method uses for and range to iterate through the indexes of the ALLERGENS array. The bitwise AND operator (&) is used to compare the score with 1 shifted left (<<) for the value of the flag.

So, if flag is 0, then 1 is shifted left 0 places, and the score is compared with bitwise 1, which is also decimal 1. If the comparison is not 0, then the score contains the Allergen, and the ALLERGEN at the index of the flag value (Eggs) is pushed to the output Vec.

if flag is 7, then 1 is shifted left 7 places, and the score is compared with bitwise 10000000, which is decimal 128. If the comparison is not 0, then the score contains the Allergen, and the ALLERGEN at the index of the flag value (Cats) is pushed to the output Vec.

22nd May 2024 · Found it useful?