Create Vec when requested

Allergies in Rust
#[derive(Debug, PartialEq, Copy, Clone)]
pub enum Allergen {
    Eggs = 1 << 0,
    Peanuts = 1 << 1,
    Shellfish = 1 << 2,
    Strawberries = 1 << 3,
    Tomatoes = 1 << 4,
    Chocolate = 1 << 5,
    Pollen = 1 << 6,
    Cats = 1 << 7,

use self::Allergen::*;
const ALLERGENS: [Allergen; 8] = [
pub struct Allergies {
    allergens: u32,

impl Allergies {
    pub fn new(n: u32) -> Allergies {
        Allergies { allergens: n }

    pub fn is_allergic_to(&self, allergen: &Allergen) -> bool {
        self.allergens & *allergen as u32 != 0

    pub fn allergies(&self) -> Vec<Allergen> {
            .filter(|a| self.is_allergic_to(a))

This approach starts by defining the Allergen enum. Since the values of the Allergen enum are primitive numeric types, the Copy trait is derived when defining the enum. Clone is a supertrait of Copy, so everything which is Copy must also implement Clone, so Clone is derived as well.

The use self::Allergen::*; line is so that the Allergen values can be referred to directly in the file, instead of needing to prefix every value with Allergen, e.g. 'Allergen::Eggs`.

A fixed-size array is defined to hold the Allergen values as a way to iterate the enum values without requiring an external crate.

The [Allergen; 8] is used to give the type and length of the array. To be a const, the size of the array must be known at compile time, so setting the type and length must be done explicitly, so the size in bytes of the fixed array can be deduced by the compiler from that and not by inspecting the element types and counting the elements itself.

The Allergies struct is defined with its allergens field given the type of u32.

Next, the methods for the Allergies struct are implemented.

The new() method sets its allergens field to the u232 value passed in.

The is_allergic_to() method uses the bitwise AND operator (&) to compare the Allergen passed in with the allergens u32 field. The dereferenced Allergen passed in is cast to a u32 for the purpose of comparison with the allergens u32 value. The method returns if the comparison is not 0. If the comparison is not 0, then the allergens field contains the value of the Allergen, and true is returned.

For example, if the allergens field is decimal 3, it is binary 11. If the passed-in Allergen is Peanuts, which is the value 2 decimal, 10 binary, then 10 ANDed with 11 is 10, not 0, and so the method would return true.

If the passed-in Allergen is Shellfish, which is the value 4 decimal, 100 binary, then 100 ANDed with 011 is 0, and so the method would return false.

The allergies() method iterates through the ALLERGENS array, passing each element of the array to the filter() method. The closure (also known as a lambda), returns the result of passing the Allergen to the is_allergic_to() method. The elements that survive the test of being present in the allergens field are passed to the cloned() method. which converts the iterator of references to Allergen values to an iterator of copies of the Allergen values. Since the Allergen values derive from Copy, they are inexpensively copied. The cloned elements are chained to the collect() method, which uses type inference to collect the elements into a Vec<Allergen> as defined in the method signature for the return value.

22nd May 2024 · Found it useful?