The Collatz Conjecture or 3x+1 problem can be summarized as follows:
Take any positive integer n. If n is even, divide n by 2 to get n / 2. If n is odd, multiply n by 3 and add 1 to get 3n + 1. Repeat the process indefinitely. The conjecture states that no matter which number you start with, you will always reach 1 eventually.
But sometimes the number grow significantly before it reaches 1. This can lead to an integer overflow and makes the algorithm unsolvable within the range of a number in u64.
Given a number n, return the number of steps required to reach 1.
Starting with n = 12, the steps would be as follows:
Resulting in 9 steps. So for input n = 12, the return value would be 9.